Ape Sh*t Cutz
Ape Sh*t Cutz
$34.99
What is Ape Sh*t Cutz? Ape Sh*t Cutz is a thermogenic pre workout scientifically formulated to support increased athletic performance, endurance, and calorie burning. We’ve taken the best elements from our best-selling, high energy pre workout Ape Sh*t and added in prominent weight loss support agents to create the ultimate fat-burning pre workout supplement.* What’s the Difference Between Ape Sh*t & Ape Sh*t Cutz? The biggest difference between the original Ape Sh*t pre workout and Ape Sh*t Cutz is the swap of nitric oxide support ingredients for weight loss support agents. In lieu of L-Citrulline, Agmatine, and Taurine, we’ve included several compounds that help support fat metabolism and increased thermogenesis to help burn more calories during training.* Make no mistake though, Ape Sh*t Cutz still offers the same delicious flavor you’ve come to expect from all Primeval Labs supplements. In fact, we believe this may surpass the flavoring of the original Ape Sh*t!* Ape Sh*t Cutz Ingredients Beta Alanine Beta alanine is a prominent endurance support supplement known to support stamina and resistance to fatigue. It does so by increasing concentrations of a powerful intracellular buffer known as carnosine.*[1] With higher levels of carnosine, skeletal muscle is better able to buffer acidic (H+) ions that accumulate during repeated muscle contractions. This enables muscles to last longer before succumbing to fatigue, promoting greater stamina, strength, and endurance.*[2,3,4] Choline Bitartrate Choline is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in cognitive development, muscle movement, and the structure of cell membranes. It also serves as a building block for the “learning transmitter”, acetylcholine, which is well-known to impact focus, learning, memory, and the “mind-muscle connection.”* Supplementing with choline helps support acetylcholine production in the body promoting greater focus and a stronger mind-muscle connection during training.* Caffeine Caffeine is great for increasing mental energy, focus, and concentration. It’s also useful for supporting weight loss due to the facts that caffeine has been noted in various research trials[5,6,7,8] to help*: Enhance fatty acid oxidation* Increase lipolysis via cyclic AMP* Boost metabolic rate* Suppresse appetite This consummate pre workout stimulant also helps improve exercise performance by reducing perceived exertion, which may help athletes to train longer, banging out more reps and burning more calories.* Ape Sh*t Cutz utilizes natural caffeine from green tea to supply smooth, long-lasting energy without the jitters, edginess or crash.* Note: Each full serving (2 scoops) of Ape Sh*t Cutz supplies a total of 300mg caffeine from green tea. Garcinia Cambogia Garcinia cambogia is a small, sour-tasting, pumpkin-shaped fruit that is rich in hydroxycitric acid (HCA).* Research suggests that garcinia cambogia may help decrease oxidative stress, suppress appetite, and support weight loss efforts.*[18,19,20] Dandelion Extract Dandelion is a commonly used all-natural diuretic included to help shed unwanted water weight that tends to accumulate in the body. Research has shown that dandelion may increase urine output, as well as the frequency of urination, for up to 5 hours![9,10]*  Additional studies also suggest dandelion may enhance glucose uptake in skeletal muscle[11], promoting greater utilization and storage of carbohydrates.* Gamma-Butyrobetaine HCl (GBB) Gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) acts as a carnitine precursor.* It is converted to carnitive via the enzyme Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBD).[12] Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase is an oxidoreductase enzyme that mediates conversion of GBB to carnitine through the movement of electrons.[13]* Why is more carnitine beneficial? Carnitine is the molecule in the body that facilitates transportation of fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation, a.k.a. “fat burning”. Greater carnitine availability allows for more fatty acids to be shuttled into the mitochondria to burn as fuel.* Be forewarned that GBB is known to have a prominent thermogenic effect in the body, so expect to feel the heat with Ape Sh*t Cutz!* Yohimbine Bark Extract Yohimbine is a bioactive compound found within the bark of the African tree, Pausinystalia johimbe. It has been noted to function as a powerful CNS stimulant that antagonizes alpha-2-adrenergic receptors in the body, which helps increase energy and focus while also supporting fat burning.*[14] Yohimbine has also been noted to help suppress appetite, helping individuals combat those notorious hunger pangs that arise during diets.*[15,16,17]  Disclaimer:  *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. References Baguet, A et al.; Journal of Applied Physiology; “Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance;” July 2010;” 2005 Roger C. Harris; et al.; “The effect of a supplement containing β-alanine on muscle carnosine synthesis, ventilatory threshold and exercise capacity in Korean cyclists, during 12 weeks combined endurance and weight training“ Hill, CA et al.; Amino Acids; “Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity ;” February 2007 Kendrick IP, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids. (2008) Hasselmo ME. The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):710–715. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2006.09.002 Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research. Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001. 2, Pharmacology of Caffeine. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223808/ Schubert, M. M., Irwin, C., Seay, R. F., Clarke, H. E., Allegro, D., & Desbrow, B. (2017). Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2017.1320537 Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A., & Miller, D. S. (1989). Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49(1), 44–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/49.1.44 Rácz-Kotilla E, Rácz G, Solomon A; The action of Taraxacum officinale extracts on the body weight and diuresis of laboratory animals . Planta Med. (1974) Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K. The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009;15(8):929-934. doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0152. Higuchi N1, et al; Effects of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation on hepatic mRNA expression levels of apoB, MTP and L-FABP in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease . Exp Ther Med. (2011) Strijbis K, Vaz F, Distel B; “Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway”; IUBMB Life; 2010 May; 62(5):357-62;  Paul HS, Sekas G, Adibi SA (Feb 1992). “Carnitine biosynthesis in hepatic peroxisomes. Demonstration of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase activity”. European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 203 (3): 599–605. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1992.tb16589.x. PMID 1735445 Murburg, M. M., Villacres, E. C., Ko, G. N., & Veith, R. C. (1991). Effects of yohimbine on human sympathetic nervous system function. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 73(4), 861–865. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-73-4-861 Mizuki Y, et al; Differential effects of noradrenergic drugs on anxiety and arousal in healthy volunteers with high and low anxiety . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (1996) Galitzky J, et al; Alpha 2-antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral yohimbine in healthy male volunteers . Eur J Clin Invest. (1988) Callahan MF, Beales M, Oltmans GA; Yohimbine and rauwolscine reduce food intake of genetically obese (obob) and lean mice . Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (1984) Onakpoya I, Hung SK, Perry R, Wider B, Ernst E. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials. J Obes. 2011;2011:509038. doi:10.1155/2011/509038 Ohia SE, Opere CA, LeDay AM, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX). Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;238(1-2):89-103. doi:10.1023/a:1019911205672 Sripradha R, Sridhar MG, Maithilikarpagaselvi N. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on high fat diet-fed rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2016;13(1):9-16. doi:10.1515/jcim-2015-0020
Isolit
Isolit
from $44.99
Athletes know the importance of protein. It provides the building blocks for their muscles, and it’s an absolute must when trying to grow bigger, faster, and stronger.* To ensure optimal daily protein intake, athletes often turn to protein powders, due to their convenience and high protein content, and more often than not these protein powders are made from whey protein.* Derived from cow’s milk, whey protein has been a staple of bodybuilders, athletes, and weekend warriors for decades for a host of reasons: Cost Effective Convenient Portable Shelf stable Delicious Packed with protein Wide array of flavors But, in recent years, protein powders have suffered in terms of quality, taste, and affordability. In an effort to cut costs, manufacturers have opted for lower quality proteins and less-satisfying flavoring technologies. This has left consumers thirsting for a protein that mixes easily, tastes great, doesn’t upset their stomach, and doesn’t break the bank.* The team at Primeval Labs has surveyed the state of protein powders in the industry and heard your cries and sought to develop a protein that was not only of superior quality, but also tasted better than anything ever tasted before.* This quest to develop the ultimate protein powder resulted in the creation of ISOLIT. What is Isolit? ISOLIT is a 100% pure whey protein isolate protein powder that mixes easily and tastes absolutely delicious. ISOLIT is derived from exceptionally high-quality milk, and by using only whey protein isolate, we’ve maximized protein content per scoop while limiting carbohydrates and fat.* Premium Quality Whey Protein Isolate ISOLIT is a delicious-tasting, easy-to-digest whey protein isolate that contains a 100% pure, Triple Cold-Filtered processed whey protein isolate (4x smaller than micro filtered!), yielding a protein with unparalleled absorption and bioavailability!* By using a cold-filtered purification process, isolates may be able to retain a higher concentration of the bioactive fractions naturally occurring in whey protein including*: ß-lactoglobulin α-lactalbumin Bovine serum albumin Immunoglobulins Glycomacropeptide Lactoferrin Lactoperoxidase Cold Pressed Cross Flow Microfiltration is a natural non-chemical manufacturing process which uses high-tech ceramic filters to remove the vast majority of carbohydrates, lactose, and fat from milk.* Unlike ion exchange, which involves the use of harsh chemicals such as hydrochloric acid that degrade the bioactive whey fractions, cold-pressed cross-flow microfiltered whey uses no harsh chemicals or high temperatures, resulting in a whey protein isolate that retains all of the beneficial bioactive fractions of whey while at the same time delivering a powder that is incredibly high in protein and essential minerals, but low in carbs, fat, and lactose.* Why Use Whey Protein Isolate? Hard training athletes know the value of a calorie, and if you’re anything like us, you hate wasting calories on unnecessary carbohydrates and fats lurking in your protein powder. For this exact reason, we’ve selected whey protein isolate.* Whey protein isolate contains a minimum 90% protein by mass, which means there’s virtually no room left for carbohydrates, lactose, or fat. Typical bargain bin protein powders you’ll find on the market use the cheaper, less refined whey protein concentrate, which is rich in various immunoglobulins and lactoferrins, but suffers from a lack of standardization in quality.* You see, whey protein concentrate can range anywhere from 35-80% protein by weight depending on what quality a particular manufacturer ends up using. Even worse, companies aren’t required to list which grade of whey protein concentrate they use in their protein, which means you could only be getting about 35% protein by weight in your powder. This also means you’re “economy” protein powder could contain as much as 65% carbohydrates and fats. That’s hardly a “protein powder” in our book.* ISOLIT utilizes whey protein isolate, considered by many to be the purest form of whey protein on the market. Whey Isolate is processed one degree further than whey concentrate to remove fat and lactose, which delivers high protein, low carbohydrate and fat, and no GI upset. *  Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, mix one scoop in 8oz of cold water. Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
EAA MAX
EAA MAX
$34.99
The long wait is over now as we’ve launched EAA Max -- the best tasting amino acid supplement on the market. EAA Max provides a full essential amino acid profile including a full 5g dose of 2:1:1 BCAAs to support muscle growth, repair, and recovery!* Primeval Labs fans have been clamoring for a comprehensive amino acid supplement for years now, but truth be told, developing the perfect profile (with exceptional flavor) is no small feat.* Sure, it’d be easy to just pump out some under-dosed BCAA-only supplement, but that doesn’t provide everything skeletal muscle tissue with what it needs to effectively synthesize more protein.  The wait is finally over now as Primeval Labs has launched EAA Max -- the best tasting amino acid supplement on the market.* EAA Max provides a complete essential amino acid profile PLUS a full serving of 2:1:1 BCAAs for maximal muscle growth, repair, and recovery!* When Can I Take EAA Max? EAA Max is your all day, every day amino acid supplement. Use it on training days for intra workout fuel, or on non-training days as a way keep a steady supply of essential amino acids pumping into your muscles. Mix a scoop or two into a half gallon water bottle and sip throughout the day.* That’s the great thing about EAA Max it can literally be used ANYTIME, ANYWHERE to support muscle growth and recovery. * Why Choose EAA Max? Typical amino acid supplements only contain the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) consisting of Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine. While there’s nothing wrong with BCAA supplements, they simply do not provide the full spectrum of amino acids the body requires for protein synthesis. Think of it like playing a game of football with only 6 of the 11 players -- it just won’t work!* Essential Amino Acids (EAA’s), on the other hand, contain the entire range of amino acids the body demands when it needs to build new tissue. EAAs are called "essential" because the body cannot synthesize them on its own. It MUST obtain them through food or supplements.* Furthermore, most individuals aren’t eating a diverse enough diet, and therefore may be deficient in some EAAs. Plus, some may be eating a well-balanced diet, but may not be absorbing the nutrients properly.* Either way, the end result is EAA deficiency and lack of protein synthesis!* EAAs not only stimulate protein synthesis, but they support energy production and cellular repair.* Additionally, EAAs are needed for complete and healthy digestion and nutrient absorption. EAAs also support each cell’s mitochondria -- the “power plant” of the cell that generates ATP!* EAA Max Ingredients Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) L-Leucine (2,500mg) Leucine is the best known, and well researched, of all the amino acids. It’s also the BCAA to which most of the benefits of BCAA supplementation is attributed. The reason being, is that Leucine as a powerful stimulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR).*[2] Note: mTOR used to stand for mammalian target of rapamycin until recently mTOR is a cellular signal “highway” that serves as the primary regulator in the body of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolism.[3] Specifically, mTOR1 is the one responsible for muscle protein synthesis (i.e. building muscle). Additionally, leucine is also helpful for preventing muscle protein breakdown (a.k.a. catabolism) -- keeping you anabolic even during periods of fasting!* It’s easy to see why Leucine is widely regarded as the “king” of all amino acids when you put these benefits together.* Stimulates mTOR pathway* Aids muscle protein synthesis* Helps combat muscle protein breakdown* L-Isoleucine (1,250mg) Think of Isoleucine as the weaker “younger brother” of Leucine. It’s a more mild stimulator of muscle protein synthesis -- weaker than Leucine, but stronger than Valine. However, where Isoleucine does stand out is in its ability to increase glucose uptake as well as glucose use during high intensity exercise.*[4] Stimulates muscle protein synthesis* Supports glucose uptake and utilization during exercise* L-Valine (1,250mg) Last of the BCAAs is Valine. Though not studied to the extent of Leucine and Isoleucine in isolation, Valine has been shown to be essential for energy conversion in the body as well as enhance glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, preventing catabolism.*[4] While it may seem inconsequential compared to the previous two BCAAs, Valine is the third critical “leg” of the BCAA trifecta that contributes to increased muscle protein synthesis, repair, and growth.* Supports glycogen synthesis in muscle tissue* Supports protein synthesis* Essential Amino Acids L-Lysine HCl (300mg) First up for the Essential Amino Acid portion of EAA Max is L-Lysine. Among Lysine’s major functions, most pertinent to its inclusion here is its role in constructing muscle protein, aiding injury recovery, and supporting calcium absorption.[5]* Additionally, Lysine is also necessary for carnitine production. Carnitine is a substance in the body that supports energy production via fat conversion. It also plays a vital role in synthesis of collagen, skin, cartilage, and tendons.* Supports immune function* Required for carnitine production* Aids fat burning via its role in the synthesis of carnitine* L-Threonine (225mg) Threonine was the final amino acid to be discovered by William C. Rose.[6] It’s an alpha amino acid necessary for the synthesis of proteins in the body. Specifically, threonine is needed for the synthesis of serine and glycine to drive muscle protein synthesis. Additionally, threonine also teams with methionine and aspartic acid to assist the liver with the digestion of fats, also known as lipotropic function.* Supports fat digestion* Required for production of serine and glycine (amino acids involved in protein synthesis)* L-Phenylalanine (200mg) Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid vital to optimal Central Nervous System functioning. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it’s used to create three highly important neurotransmitters that essentially govern the way you interact and view your surroundings.* Furthermore, increased levels of these three neurotransmitters translate to increased energy, mood, and focus -- all critical attributes to maintaining performance when training.* Used in the production of neurotransmitters which enhance motivation and focus* Supports synthesis of catecholamines* L-Tryptophan (50mg) As the sole precursor of serotonin, L-tryptophan is vital to optimal serotonin production on the brain, which is an important factor in cognition, behavior, and overall mood.[7] The problem is that Tryptophan is the amino acid with the lowest concentrations in the body[8], so supplementing with extra ensure you have the adequate raw materials needed for sufficient serotonin production, and don’t have to worry about any bouts of depression!* Interestingly enough, researchers have observed that only the “L” form of amino acids (other forms such as DL-Tryptophan, DL-Phenylalanine, etc. exist) can be used by the body for protein synthesis and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This is why Primeval Labs includes ONLY the L-based amino acid forms in EAA Max -- quality matters!* Serotonin precursor* Supports a healthy mood due to its role in serotonin production* L-Histidine Histidine is a precursor to histamine and an essential component for cognitive functioning and wakefulness.[9] The reason for this is that histidine is needed for the development and maintenance of the myelin sheaths that cover nerve cells and support signal transmission from the brain to all the various component of the body.* Additionally, histidine also forms the crucial second half of the beta alanine + histidine “equation” for carnosine production.[10]* Precursor to histamine, an important neurotransmitter* Supports neurotransmission due to its role in the development of myelin sheath* Works with beta alanine to produce carnosine* L-Methionine Last but not least of the EAA portion of EAA Max is Methionine. Among the numerous critical functions that Methionine is involved in, first among those is its role as a lipotropic, substance that assists the liver with fat digestion. Furthermore, methionine also acts as a precursor for L-Cysteine, a powerful antioxidant in the body which helps defend against free radicals and oxidative stress brought on by intense exercise.[11]* Assists the liver with fat digestion* Precursor to cysteine -- an important antioxidant* Muscle Energy & Nutrient Delivery Cluster Dextrin®(2,000mg) Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin (HBCD) is the ideal carbohydrate you want going into an intense workout. It’s unique molecular structure facilitates rapid digestion with no GI upset or “carb coma” like other functional carbohydrates.* Cluster Dextrin gets immediately transported into muscles where it can provide a reliable source of energy and enhance nutrient delivery, thereby supporting muscle growth and repair. This is the exact carbohydrate you want packaged with your essential amino acids for maximal nutrient transport and absorption!* Fast-digesting, low-glycemic carbohydrate* Supports energy production and exercise performance* Aids glycogen resynthesis* D-Ribose (500mg) D-Ribose is a supplemental variation of ribose, a sugar produced from the digestion of glucose, that combines with adenine to form ATP, the primary energy driver of cellular metabolism. During intense training, ATP is rapidly depleted, which leads to decreased stamina and performance. D-ribose effectively regenerates ATP reserves in the cell following exercise[12,13], which keeps performance at peak levels throughout even the most grueling training sessions. due to the demands placed on the muscle.* Supplemental form of ribose that supports ATP production* Supports exercise performance* May aid intra-set recovery* Dosing Mix one scoop of EAA Max in 10-12oz of cold water and consume during exercise on training days. On non-training days, EAA Max can be consumed throughout the day for improved recovery and muscle building.  Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
EAA MAX ENERGY
EAA MAX ENERGY
$34.99
Primeval Labs rocked the amino acid supplement category when we released EAA Max. The product was downright delicious, but you wanted more! You wanted all the best aspects of EAA Max but with some extra energy to really get you going. Well, Primeval fans, your prayers have been answered as we’ve now created the ultimate amino energy supplement on the market in EAA Max Energy! Not only do you get a full 5g dose of 2:1:1 BCAAs along with a comprehensive spectrum of essential amino acids, you also get ample energy to crush a daunting workout or make it through another long afternoon at the office.* This is the answer to the common, over-priced energy drink that only provides caffeine with nothing else to offer.* EAA Max Energy provides all the energy you could want and it also supports muscle growth and recovery, giving you the best of both worlds in one affordable product.* When Can I Use EAA Max Energy? EAA Max Energy is perfect on training days as a pre workout or intra workout or on non-training days to support muscle growth and recovery. It can also be used as a replacement for your typical afternoon coffee or energy drink when you need a little “pick me up” to get through the day.* Mix a scoop into a half gallon water bottle, drink throughout the day, and kick those energy drinks and coffee cups to the curb.* Why Choose EAA Max Energy? Each serving of EAA Max Energy provides ALL of the essential amino acids required for muscle protein synthesis (including a full 5g of 2:1:1 BCAAs!) and a generous amount of caffeine to provide smooth, long-lasting energy that will have you on top of your game all day long.* Additionally, if you don’t consume a diverse diet, you may be missing out on some key EAAs needed for proper protein construction. EAA Max Energy may help “fill in the gaps” if diets missing one of those essential amino acids.* Not only does EAA Max Energy promote protein synthesis, it also supports increased energy production, muscle repair, and mitochondrial function.*[1] And, if you’re tired of chugging coffee, sickly sweet energy drinks, or underdosed BCAAs, EAA Max Energy may be just the thing you need!* EAA Max Energy Ingredients Stimulant Blend (286mg) There’s no other way to kick off EAA Max Energy’s ingredients than with the energy component of the product. Primeval Labs has crafted a powerful energy-boosting blend utilizing a trifecta of caffeine in the form of Infinergy Dicaffeine Malate, Caffeine Anhydrous, and Caffeine Citrate.*This scientifically-formulated blend of caffeine provides both immediate and sustained energy. There’s no jitters, anxiety, or crash here, only smooth, long-lasting energy.* Branch Chain Amino Acids L-Leucine Leucine is the “king” of all amino acids. It’s the most heavily researched BCAA and the one to which the vast majority of BCAA supplementation benefits are attributed. Leucine is the primary activator of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.*[2]Activating mTOR stimulates muscle protein synthesis and also enhances cellular growth, multiplication, metabolism, and survival.[3] On top of that, leucine is also essential for staving off catabolism (i.e. muscle protein breakdown), which ensures the gains you make are kept for good!* Stimulates mTOR -- the pathway that drives muscle protein synthesis* helps combat muscle breakdown* L-Isoleucine Typically thought of as Leucine’s weaker, younger brother, Isoleucine is also a stimulator of muscle protein synthesis, but not nearly as potent as Leucine is. However, one area that Isoleucine does shine is its ability to enhance the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle as well as utilization of glucose during intense exercise.[4] In other words, Isoleucine improves the body's ability to store and use glucose while training allowing for more productive workouts and better gains!* stimulates muscle protein synthesis* Aids glucose uptake and utilization by skeletal muscle* L-Valine The third and final BCAA is Valine. It’s also the least individually researched of the three BCAAs.*Valine is vital for glycogen synthesis in muscle tissue as well as energy conversion[4] and forms the crucial third component of the branched-chain amino acid family.* Promotes glycogen resynthesis* Essential Amino Acids L-Lysine HCl (300mg) L-Lysine plays a number of important roles in regards to muscle building and athletic performance. It’s required for the production of carnitine - a substance that helps the body use fat for energy, and necessary for the creation of skin, cartilage, collagen, and tendons.* Furthermore, Lysine is also necessary for building proteins, enhancing calcium absorption, and accelerating recovery from injuries.*[5] Involved in carnitine production* Supports the body's use of fat for energy* Aids calcium absorption* L-Threonine (225mg) The very last amino acid discovered was Threonine.[6] It’s categorized as an alpha amino acid required for glycine and serine production, both of which are essential for fueling muscle protein synthesis. Threonine also works with aspartic acid and methionine (also found in EAA Max Energy) to support lipotropic function (fat digestion) in the liver.* Needed for the production of glycine and serine* Involved in fat digestion* L-Phenylalanine (200mg) Phenylalanine is a true rarity among amino acids, as it is one of the few compounds around that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This makes phenylalanine a critical component of healthy Central Nervous System function.[6] L-Tryptophan (50mg) L-tryptophan is the precursor to serotonin in the body, which means aside from it is essential for protein synthesis, it’s also essential for optimal serotonin production -- an important neurotransmitter for mood, behavior, and cognition.[*7] However, Tryptophan is the least abundant EAA in the body.[8] Deficiencies in this essential amino acids may lead to poor mood as well as reduced protein synthesis!* Several forms of Tryptophan can be found in amino acid supplements (DL-Tryptophan for example), but only the “L-” form is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and effectively be used for protein synthesis. Here is yet another example of Primeval Labs bringing only the best to its products!* Required for serotonin production* Due to its role in serotonin production, trytophan may support a healthy mood and better cognition* L-Histidine Histidine is vital to optimal cognitive function as well as wakefulness. It’s also a precursor to histamine.[9] In case you weren’t aware, histidine is required for the development and maintenance of the myelin sheaths that envelop nerve cells. Myelin sheaths also enhance signal transmission from the brain to all the other parts of the body.* This EAA is also essential for carnosine production, which is formed when beta alanine binds to histidine in muscle tissue.[10] Carnosine is an intracellular buffer that helps combat premature fatigue by removing H+ ions in the muscle.* Precursor to histamine* Supports neurotransmission via its involvement in maintenance of myelin sheath* Works with beta alanine to form carnosine* L-Methionine The final essential amino acid in EAA Max Energy is Methionine. Among the various roles Methionine plays in the body, is that of a precursor to L-Cysteine, an incredibly powerful antioxidant that combats oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise.[11] L-Cysteine prevents free radical from accumulating in the body, and preventing inflammation -- ensuring health and wellness.* On top of that, Methionine is also a valuable lipotropic compound, which means it aids the liver in digesting fats.* Supports production of Cysteine* Aids fat metabolism* Muscle Energy & Nutrient Delivery Cluster Dextrin®(2,000mg) Cluster Dextrin® is the patented form of Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin (HBCD), an fast-digesting carbohydrate source ideal for training. Cluster Dextrin’s unique structure gives it a high molecular weight and low osmolality, which means it is rapidly digested, but comes without the GI upset of other quick digesting carb sources.* Cluster Dextrin® is rapidly transported to skeletal muscles to provide energy and support amino acid delivery. The end result is better nutrient uptake for better muscle growth, repair, and recovery.* low-glycemic, fast-digesting carbohydrate* Supports athletic performance* Aids glycogen replenishment* D-Ribose (500mg) Ribose is a sugar produced from the breakdown of glucose in the body that combines with Adenine to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main energy “currency” of the cell. D-Ribose is a supplemental form of Ribose used by athletes in improve athletic performance.* As you’re aware, during exercise, ATP stores become depleted, which negatively impacts performance. Supplementing with D-ribose has been shown to enhance ATP regeneration, supporting quicker inter-set recovery and increased training capacity.*[12,13] Exogenous form of ribose that supports athletic performance* Shown in research to aid ATP regeneration* May support faster intra-set recovery* Suggested Use Mix one scoop of EAA Max in 10-12oz of cold water and consume during exercise on training days. On non-training days, EAA Max Energy can be consumed throughout the day to support recovery and muscle building.* Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
EAA SLEEP
EAA SLEEP
$34.99
Primeval Labs EAA Sleep is the evolution of sleep aid supplements. Deep, restful sleep is crucial to optimal mental and physical performance. Unfortunately, most people simply don’t get enough quality sleep every night, leading to lethargy, brain fog, irritability, and countless other side effects. Even worse, especially for athletes, skimping on sleep can reduce recovery, decrease muscle growth, and encourage fat gain!* Simply put, you need quality sleep every night. Whether it be 4, 8, or even 10 hours, the sleep you get each night should be deep and restorative, so that when you wake up the next morning you feel refreshed and ready to tackle whatever challenges the new day will throw you.* EAA Sleep is an all-natural sleep and recovery supplement to recharge your body and mind and support your muscle building efforts. EAA Sleep provides a full complement of all natural sleep aids to encourage relaxation and sedation, promoting deep, restorative sleep without any groggy feelings the next morning. On top of that, you’ll also get the full spectrum of essential amino acids (EAAs) to support muscle growth and repair while you sleep, thereby avoiding muscle breakdown (catabolism).* Plus, EAA Sleep also tastes great! You’ll actually look forward to drinking it each night before slipping under the covers.* EAA Sleep Ingredients GABA (1g) GABA, short for Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter that regulates depressive and sedative actions in the brain. It’s essential for relaxation and has been associated with stable mood and restful sleep. That’s not all though, as GABA also supports production of key hormones in the body that control muscle growth and fat burning, including human growth hormone.*[1] Supplemental GABA increases alpha band brain waves[25] while decreasing beta brain waves. Alpha waves are the “deep relaxation” waves in the brain, while beta waves are responsible for alertness and reasoning.* GABA is calming neurotransmitter associated with restful sleep* Studies show that supplementing with GABA increases alpha brain waves* L-Theanine (200mg) Found prevalently in tea leaves, L-Theanine is an amino acid that promotes relaxation, reduces stress, and improves sleep.[4,5,6] Theanine’s ability to induce a state of calmness is one of the primary reasons it’s a staple ingredient in sleep aids and why so many people recommend drinking a cup of warm herbal tea before bed.* If you’re one of those individuals who has trouble turning your mind off at night, theanine may help calm your mind and alleviate your stress, enabling you to drift off to a long, peaceful sleep.* Amino acid found in green tea that crosses the blood-brain barrier* Increases levels of GABA in the brain* Studies show supplementing with L-Theanine promotes relaxation and helps reduce stress*   5-HTP (100mg) Derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan, 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) is a precursor to serotonin, the neurotransmitter associated with happiness and contentment. This compound promotes relaxation and sleep, and also has been shown to reduce appetite.*[7] When combined with GABA, the two were documented to decrease the time required to fall asleep as well as improve sleep quality and time asleep.[8] Additionally, since 5-HTP supports serotonin production, it may also improve mood and sense of well-being.* Direct precursor to serotonin* Promotes relaxation* Supports a healthy mood* When combined with GABA, 5-HTP may help reduce sleep latency and improve quality of sleep* Melatonin (2.5mg) Melatonin is a naturally-occurring hormone secreted by the brain that governs sleep. Essentially, this neurohormone controls your circadian rhythms and tells your body when it’s time to get in “sleep mode.”* Unfortunately, light suppresses melatonin production, and in this day and age of constant TV, laptop, and smartphone use, the circadian rhythm gets out of whack due to disrupted melatonin production and the end result is disrupted sleep.* Supplementing with melatonin can promote a healthy circadian rhythm, thereby helping you get to sleep faster each night.[9,10,11] It’s also been useful in combating insomnia and improving sleep quality in individuals as well.[12,13] Best of all, melatonin doesn’t come with any rebound effects or withdrawal symptoms, unlike other common sleep support supplements.* Melatonin is a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle* Supplementing with melatonin may improve sleep latency* 2:1:1 BCAAs (5g) The branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a special “subcategory” of the essential amino acids. Comprised of the amino acids Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, the three BCAAs have been heavily investigated for their role in promoting muscle protein synthesis (via mTOR activation), reducing muscle breakdown (catabolism), and improving exercise performance.[14,15,16] Additionally, the BCAAs support immune system function, glycogen replenishment, and energy production.*[17,18] Stimulate muscle protein synthesis* Help reduce muscle breakdown* Support glycogen replenishment and energy production*   Essential Amino Acids L-Lysine HCl (300mg) Lysine is one of the EAA’s essential for protein construction, injury recovery, and carnitine production. Carnitine is a substance that facilitates the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria of your cells to be burned for energy, i.e. fat burning. But that’s not all, lysine is also required for the production of skin, cartilage, collagen, and tendons, as well as calcium absorption.*[19] Supports immune function* Assists fat burning via its role in supporting carnitine production* L-Threonine (225mg) Discovered by William C. Rose, threonine was the final amino acid discovered by science.[20] It’s required for the synthesis of glycine and serine, two amino acids which drive muscle protein synthesis in the body. Threonine also works with aspartic acid and methionine to support digestion of fats in the liver, otherwise known as lipotropic function.* Supports muscle protein synthesis* Aids fat digestion in the liver* L-Phenylalanine (200mg) Phenylalanine is an EAA critical to proper Central Nervous System (CNS) function. It can easily cross the blood-brain barrier where it’s then used in the production of three big-time neurotransmitters that regulate how you interact and view your environment.* Supports production of neurotransmitters Promotes focus and motivation* L-Tryptophan (50mg) L-tryptophan is the lone precursor to serotonin and essential to maintaining optimal levels of the neurotransmitter in the body, and subsequently mood, behavior, and cognition.[21] In fact, L-Tryptophan has even been used as a form of alternative medicine to treat insomnia, anxiety, depression, and even attention-deficit disorder (ADD).* Unfortunately, Tryptophan is the amino acid with the lowest concentration in the body[22], which is why so many are at risk for disrupted sleep and altered behavior.* Tryptophan is the least abundant amino acid in the body* Precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in mood as well as sleep.* L-Histidine (25mg) A precursor to histamine, histidine is an EAA that’s essential for cognitive function and wakefulness.[23] Histidine is required for the maintenance and development of the myelin sheaths around nerve cells that support signal transmission from the brain to all the other areas of the body. Plus, this EAA also protects against the damaging effects of radiation and assists in the elimination of heavy metals from the body.* Supports production of the intracellular buffer carnosine* Histamine precursor that aids cognitive function and myelin sheath development* L-Methionine (20mg) Methionine is involved in numerous functions of the body, with one of the most important being, fat digestion. Additionally, methionine serves as a precursor for L-Cysteine, a powerful antioxidant, which protects against oxidative stress brought on by free radicals caused by intense exercise.*[24] Supports L-cysteine synthesis (cysteine is an important antioxidant in the body)* Assists with fat digestion* Suggested Use: Take 1 Scoop with 12-14 oz of cold water 20-30 min before bedtime. Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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MEGA TEST Health & Wellness - Primeval Labs
MEGA TEST
$39.99
Mega Test is a transparently-dosed natural testosterone support supplement containing numerous research-backed ingredients including D-Aspartic Acid, Tribulus Terrestris, and Maca Powder to aid the body's natural hormone production mechanisms. Mega Test Ingredients D-Aspartic Acid (2g) D-Aspartic Acid is a non-essential amino acid that has been noted in research to increase the release of several hormones, including luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which influences testosterone production. * Additional studies suggest that D-Aspartic Acid may improve sperm quantity, quality, and motility.* natural amino acid that supports testosterone production* may improve sperm quality* Tribulus Terrestris (550mg) Tribulus Terrestris is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used to support male virility and vitality. The majority of the effects of Tribulus are attributed to phytochemicals contained in the plant known as saponins. Mega Test includes a Tribulus extract standardized to 45% saponins.* Research suggests that supplementation with Tribulus may support higher testosterone levels as well as promote lean body mass and reduce body fat.* Ayurvedic compound shown in studies to enhance luteinizing hormone* Enhances anaerobic and alactic muscular power* Maca Powder (250mg) Maca is Peruvian herb containing plant sterols believed to support libido, sexual desire, and fertility.* This herb may also promote greater energy and mood while reducing stress, thanks to its adaptogenic qualities.* Peruvian adaptogenic herb that may support energy and endurance* Promotes increased libido and improved sexual function* Mucuna Pruriens (200mg) Also known as velvet bean, mucuna pruriens is another adaptogenic herb known to help combat stress. Mucuna is rich in L-Dopa -- a precursor to dopamine, the neurotransmitter heavily involved in mood, motivation, and focus.* Research notes that L-Dopa may increase Luteinizing Hormone, which supports increased testosterone production. Additionally, other research suggests that L-Dopa may also lower prolactin levels as well as increase sperm count.* Contains the direct precursor to dopamine, L-Dopa* Supports mood and motivation* May increase luteinizing hormone and improve sperm quality* 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (100mg) Derived from indole-3-carbinol (a phytocompound present in broccoli), 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (or DIM) help promote a healthy balance of estrogen in the body* Supports hormone balance* Promotes estrogen balance* Longjack (100mg) A staple of Traditional Medicine, Longjack (a.k.a Eurycoma Longifolia and Tongkat Ali) has been noted in research to support hormone regulation and erection quality.* Longjack may also promote better estrogen control as well as free and total testosterone levels due to its ability to help reduce cortisol levels.* May improve stress hormone profile and certain mood states* Vitamin D (1,000 IU) Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin commonly referred to as “the sunshine vitamin” due to the fact that our bodies naturally produce it when exposed to direct sunlight. This essential vitamin plays a role in a number of important functions in the body, including natural testosterone production.* Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population is deficient in this essential vitamin. For men, this is particularly concerning, as low Vitamin D levels are associated with lower fertility, increased body fat, and lower amounts of lean muscle mass.* Essential fat-soluble that supports natural testosterone production* Low levels of VItamin D are associated with lower fertility and increased body fat* Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Glory MV Health & Wellness - Primeval Labs
Glory MV
$29.99
What is Glory MV? Athletes willingly subject their bodies to tremendous amounts of stress on a daily basis Over time, these stresses compound and take a serious toll on the body’s nutrient reserves, potentially leading to impaired recovery, decreased immune function, and severely hampered performance.* Glory MV is a complete health & wellness support supplement designed for serious athletes. Each serving of Glory MV delivers essential vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients to replenish those depleted by intense exercise and support the body’s recovery and growth processes.* Glory MV Ingredient Highlights Included among the numerous micronutrients contained in Glory MV are: B vitamins for greater energy production* Vitamins C and E for added antioxidant support* Calcium and Vitamin D for bone health* Vitamin A for skin and eye health* Iodine for thyroid and metabolism support* Together, the diverse array of nutrients in Glory MV help address the shortcomings in an athlete’s diet and help create a stronger, more resilient body.* Glory MV Highlights Supplies over 20 essential vitamins and minerals* 30 servings* TRAACS® minerals* Safe for men and women* Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
PyreticX  - Primeval Labs
PyreticX
$29.99
Pyretic X is a well-rounded thermogenic weight loss supplement formulated to help support increased thermogenesis, greater energy expenditure, and reduced body fat.* When combined with a reduced-calorie diet and exercise program, the ingredients in Pyretic X may help support dietary compliance and calorie burning, thereby promoting more efficient weight loss and better performance in the gym.* Pyretic X Ingredients Olive Leaf Extract (20% Oleuropein) Olive leaf extract is rich in numerous bioactive compounds, the most well-known of which is oleuropein.* Oleuropein is a versatile compound that has been noted in scientific research to possess a wide range of activities, including*:[1] Antioxidant Anti-inflammatory Anti-atherogenic Antimicrobial activity Antiviral activity Hypolipidemic hypoglycemic effect Oleuropein also stimulates BAT (brown adipose tissue), inhibits PPAR-γ receptor, and suppresses the proliferation of adipocytes (fat cells).*[2]  Oleuropein also enhances thermogenesis by increasing uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1).*[3] Additional research indicates that olive leaf extract supplementation may support better insulin sensitivity and help limit oxidation of LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.*[4] Animal studies also indicate that olive leaf extract supports thyroid function.*[5]  As you’re probably aware, the thyroid gland is critical to proper functioning of the metabolism.* Green Coffee Extract Green coffee beans are raw, unroasted coffee beans. They are rich in many pharmacologically active compounds, including chlorogenic acid.* Human studies note an inverse association between coffee intake and weight gain.[6]* Green coffee extract may help reduce body weight and fat mass, possibly due to reducing the amount of carbohydrate taken up by the intestines following a meal.* Researchers have theorized that green coffee extract may modify hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans.[7]* Green coffee extract’s primary bioactive, chlorogenic acid, appears to increase nitric oxide availability and possess antihypertensive effects.[8]*  Research also indicates chlorogenic acid reduces the hyperglycemic peak associated with carbohydrate ingestion.[9] This lowers insulin activity and may help reduce fat accumulation.* Natural Caffeine Caffeine is the well-known central nervous system (CNS) stimulant widely available in foods common to the diet, including coffee, tea, and dark chocolate.* Caffeine is best known for its ability to increase feelings of mental energy, due to its antagonism of adenosine receptors in the brain.* Regarding weight loss support, caffeine has been shown to help to boost metabolism, increase calorie burning, and enhance lipolysis (the “liberating” of stored fatty acids).[10,11]* Caffeine further supports weight loss by acting as a mild appetite suppressant, which may help reduce calorie intake at meal time.* Dieting on low calories is also known to lead to feelings of sluggish, lethargy, and a general lack of motivation to train hard.* Caffeine can help increase energy and motivation due to its ability to stimulate dopamine (“the mood and motivation” molecule) release in the brain, which increases mood, motivation and focus.[12]* Interestingly, dopamine also increases thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, further increasing calorie burning.[13]* Theobromine Theobromine is a chemical cousin of caffeine and the principal alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean).[14] It’s also found in varying quantities in coffee and dark chocolate.* Theobromine is traditionally used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator as well as a diuretic.*[14,15] Research in animals shows that supplementation with a theobromine-rich cocoa powder encourages significant weight loss.[16]* Anecdotally, theobromine supplies a smoother, subtler, longer-lasting energy that complements the fast-acting energy of caffeine. It’s thought that combining the two may help limit the unwanted energy crash that accompanies high doses of caffeine.* This may be due, in part, to theobromine having a longer half-life than caffeine.[17]* Caffeine Anhydrous Pyretic X contains an additional 100mg of fast-acting caffeine anhydrous to further increase feelings of enhanced mental and physical energy to complement the smooth energy of Natural caffeine.* In total, Pyretic X contains 253mg of caffeine per full serving (2 capsules). Yohimbe Bark (8% Yohimbine) Yohimbine (pausinystalia johimbe) is a plant native to western and central Africa.* Extracts from yohimbe have long been used in traditional medicine as an aphrodisiac.* The primary active constituent in yohibe, yohimbine, is a prominent weight loss supplement due to its ability to antagonize (“block”) alpha-adrenergic receptors, thereby supporting fat burning.*[24] “Stubborn” fat areas have higher concentrations of alpha receptors and blocking them encourages increased fat-burning in those areas as greater amounts of fat-burning catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) can then bind to the beta receptors on fat cells.*  Yohimbine has also been explored as a potential ergogenic and body recomposition aid.[25]* Paradoxine® Paradoxine is a research-backed, patented extract of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum Melegueta) standardized to 12.5% 6-paradol.* 6-paradol is an aromatic ketone that is the major bioactive constituent of Grains of Paradise.* Research indicates that supplementation with Grains of Paradise extract may stimulate thermogenesis, increase energy expenditure, and decrease body fat.[18,19,20]* Cayenne Pepper Cayenne pepper contains the fiery alkaloid capsaicin which has been noted to possess some very enticing weight loss benefits.* Capsaicin has been noted in research to help reduce appetite and increase satiety by increasing glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and decreasing ghrelin (the hunger hormone).[21]* Additional studies indicate that capsaicin can stimulate brown fat thermogenesis, which supports greater energy expenditure and calorie burning.[22]* Capsaicin may also help reduce appetite and calorie intake, due to its binding and activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) in the mouth, stomach and small intestine.[23]*  Activation of TRPV1 receptor stimulates the release of noradrenaline and dopamine, which have been noted to enhance weight loss and exercise performance.* SUGGESTED USE: Consume 2 capsules daily. To assess tolerance, it is suggested to begin with one capsule per day. Never exceed 4 capsules in any single 24-hour period. Disclaimer: *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. References Omar SH. Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects. Sci Pharm. 2010;78(2):133-54. Svobodova M, Andreadou I, Skaltsounis AL, Kopecky J, Flachs P. Oleuropein as an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Genes Nutr. 2014;9(1):376. doi:10.1007/s12263-013-0376-0 Oi-Kano Y, Kawada T, Watanabe T, et al. Oleuropein, a phenolic compound in extra virgin olive oil, increases uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue and enhances noradrenaline and adrenaline secretions in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008;54(5):363-370. doi:10.3177/jnsv.54.363 De Bock M, Derraik JGB, Brennan CM, et al. Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial. Nerurkar PV, ed. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e57622. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057622. Al-Qarawi AA, Al-Damegh MA, ElMougy SA Effect of freeze dried extract of Olea europaea on the pituitary-thyroid axis in rats. Phytother Res. (2002) Lopez-Garcia E, Van Dam RM, Rajpathak S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB. Changes in caffeine intake and long-term weight change in men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;83(3):674–680. Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM. Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;78(4):728–733 Wong RH, Garg ML, Wood LG, Howe PR. Antihypertensive potential of combined extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Nutrients. 2014;6(11):4881-4894. Published 2014 Nov 5. doi:10.3390/nu6114881 Tunnicliffe JM, Eller LK, Reimer RA, Hittel DS, Shearer J. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Oct;36(5):650-9. Nehlig A. Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer? J Alzheimers Dis 2010;20 Suppl 1, S85-94. Habowski SM, Sandrock J, et al.   Lieberman, H. R., Wurtman, R. J., Emde, G. G., Roberts, C., & Coviella, I. L. (1987). The effects of low doses of caffeine on human performance and mood.Psychopharmacology, 92(3), 308–312.  Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A., & Miller, D. S. (1989). Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 49(1), 44–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/49.1.44 Kohlie, R., Perwitz, N., Resch, J., Schmid, S. M., Lehnert, H., Klein, J., & Iwen, K. A. (2017). Dopamine directly increases mitochondrial mass and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 58(2), 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1530/JME-16-0159 IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines and Methylglyoxal. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1991. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 51.) Theobromine. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507032/ Dorfman LJ, Jarvik ME. Comparative stimulant and diuretic actions of caffeine and theobromine in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1970;11(6):869-872. doi:10.1002/cpt1970116869 Eteng, M., Ibekwe, H. A., Umoh, U., Ebong, P., Umoh, I., & Eyong, E. (2007). Theobromine rich cocoa powder induces weight loss and changes in lipid profile of obese Wistar rats. Discovery and Innovation, 18. https://doi.org/10.4314/dai.v18i3.15745 Martínez-Pinilla E, Oñatibia-Astibia A, Franco R. The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption. Front Pharmacol. 2015;6:30. Published 2015 Feb 20. doi:10.3389/fphar.2015.00030 Iwami M, Mahmoud FA, Shiina T, et al. Extract of grains of paradise and its active principle 6-paradol trigger thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2011;161(1-2):63-67. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2010.11.012 Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., et al; “Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men”; British Journal of Nutrition; (2013) 110(4), pp. 733–738;  Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, et al; “Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans”; Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology; 2014, 60(1): 22-27  Smeets AJ and Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on energy and substrate utilisation, hormones, and satiety. European Journal of Nutrition. 2009;48(4):229-234. doi:10.1007/s00394-009-0006-1. Whiting S, et al. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence. Appetite 2012;59(2): p.341-8. Ludy MJ, et al. The effects of capsaicin and capsiate on energy balance: critical review and meta-analyses of studies in humans. Chem Senses 2012: 37(2) p. 103-21. Galitzky J, Taouis M, Berlan M, Rivière D, Garrigues M, Lafontan M. Alpha 2-antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral yohimbine in healthy male volunteers. Eur J Clin Invest. 1988;18(6):587-594. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.1988.tb01272.x Ostojic SM. Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players. Res Sports Med. 2006;14(4):289-299. doi:10.1080/15438620600987106